Introduction ::SyriaBackground:Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French administered the area as Syria until granting it independence in 1946. The new country lacked political stability, however, and experienced a series of military coups during its first decades. Syria united with Egypt in February 1958 to form the United Arab Republic. In September 1961, the two entities separated, and the Syrian Arab Republic was reestablished. In November 1970, Hafiz al-ASAD, a member of the socialist Ba'th Party and the minority Alawi sect, seized power in a bloodless coup and brought political stability to the country. In the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel. During the 1990s, Syria and Israel held occasional peace talks over its return. Following the death of President al-ASAD, his son, Bashar al-ASAD, was approved as president by popular referendum in July 2000. Syrian troops - stationed in Lebanon since 1976 in an ostensible peacekeeping role - were withdrawn in April 2005. During the July-August 2006 conflict between Israel and Hizballah, Syria placed its military forces on alert but did not intervene directly on behalf of its ally Hizballah. In May 2007 Bashar al-ASAD's second term as president was approved by popular referendum. Influenced by major uprisings that began elsewhere in the region, antigovernment protests broke out in the southern province of Dar'a in March 2011 with protesters calling for the repeal of the restrictive Emergency Law allowing arrests without charge, the legalization of political parties, and the removal of corrupt local officials. Since then demonstrations and unrest have spread to nearly every city in Syria, but the size and intensity of protests have fluctuated over time. The government responded to unrest with a mix of concessions - including the repeal of the Emergency Law and approving new laws permitting new political parties and liberalizing local and national elections - and force. However, the government's response has failed to meet opposition demands for ASAD to step down, and the government's ongoing security operations to quell unrest and widespread armed opposition activity have led to extended violent clashes between government forces and oppositionists. International pressure on the ASAD regime has intensified since late 2011, as the Arab League, EU, Turkey, and the United States have expanded economic sanctions against the regime. Lakhdar BRAHIMI, current Joint Special Representative of the United Nations and the League of Arab States on the Syrian crisis, in October 2012 began meeting with regional heads of state to assist in brokering a cease-fire. In December 2012, the National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces was recognized by more than 130 countries as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people. Unrest persists in 2013, and the death toll among Syrian Government forces, opposition forces, and civilians has topped 100,000.Geography ::SyriaLocation:Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and TurkeyGeographic coordinates:35 00 N, 38 00 EArea:total: 185,180 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 89land: 183,630 sq kmwater: 1,550 sq kmnote: includes 1,295 sq km of Israeli-occupied territoryArea - comparative:slightly larger than North DakotaLand boundaries:total: 2,253 kmborder countries: Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 kmCoastline:193 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmClimate:mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in DamascusTerrain:primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in westElevation extremes:lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -200 mhighest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 mNatural resources:petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropowerLand use:arable land: 24.9%permanent crops: 5.69%other: 69.41% (2011)Irrigated land:13,410 sq km (2010)Total renewable water resources:16.8 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 16.76 cu km/yr (9%/4%/88%)per capita: 867.4 cu m/yr (2005)Natural hazards:dust storms, sandstormsvolcanism: Syria's two historically active volcanoes, Es Safa and an unnamed volcano near the Turkish border have not erupted in centuriesEnvironment - current issues:deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from raw sewage and petroleum refining wastes; inadequate potable waterEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: Environmental ModificationGeography - note:the capital of Damascus - located at an oasis fed by the Barada River - is thought to be one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities; there are 41 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (2010 est.)People and Society ::SyriaNationality:noun: Syrian(s)adjective: SyrianEthnic groups:Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%Languages:Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian (widely understood); French, English (somewhat understood)Religions:Sunni Muslim (Islam - official) 74%, other Muslim (includes Alawite, Druze) 16%, Christian (various denominations) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)Population:22,457,336 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 53note: approximately 18,700 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2011)Age structure:0-14 years: 33.9% (male 3,900,073/female 3,707,117)15-24 years: 20.8% (male 2,387,006/female 2,285,496)25-54 years: 36.9% (male 4,214,621/female 4,075,181)55-64 years: 4.6% (male 504,422/female 517,413)65 years and over: 3.9% (male 395,806/female 470,201) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 64.3 %youth dependency ratio: 57.7 %elderly dependency ratio: 6.7 %potential support ratio: 15 (2013)Median age:total: 22.7 yearsmale: 22.5 yearsfemale: 22.9 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:0.15% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 181Birth rate:23.01 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 73Death rate:3.67 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 211Net migration rate:-17.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 219Urbanization:urban population: 56.1% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 2.36% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:Aleppo 2.985 million; DAMASCUS (capital) 2.527 million; Hims 1.276 million; Hamah 854,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/femaletotal population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Maternal mortality rate:70 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 88Infant mortality rate:total: 14.63 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 114male: 16.83 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 12.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.14 yearscountry comparison to the world: 97male: 72.74 yearsfemale: 77.69 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:2.77 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 72Contraceptive prevalence rate:58.3% (2006)Health expenditures:3.4% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 178Physicians density:1.5 physicians/1,000 population (2008)Hospital bed density:1.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 93% of populationrural: 86% of populationtotal: 90% of populationunimproved:urban: 7% of populationrural: 14% of populationtotal: 10% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 96% of populationrural: 93% of populationtotal: 95% of populationunimproved:urban: 4% of populationrural: 7% of populationtotal: 5% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)country comparison to the world: 134HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:fewer than 500 (2003 est.)country comparison to the world: 150HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 200 (2003 est.)country comparison to the world: 111Obesity - adult prevalence rate:27.1% (2008)country comparison to the world: 41Children under the age of 5 years underweight:10.1% (2009)country comparison to the world: 69Education expenditures:5.1% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 73Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 84.1%male: 90.3%female: 77.7% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 yearsmale: 12 yearsfemale: 11 years (2007)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 192,915percentage: 4 % (2006 est.)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 19.2%country comparison to the world: 62male: 15.3%female: 40.2% (2010)Government ::SyriaCountry name:conventional long form: Syrian Arab Republicconventional short form: Syrialocal long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyahlocal short form: Suriyahformer: United Arab Republic (with Egypt)Government type:republic under an authoritarian regimeCapital:name: Damascusgeographic coordinates: 33 30 N, 36 18 Etime difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins midnight on the last Friday in March; ends at midnight on the first Friday in NovemberAdministrative divisions:14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah (Latakia), Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq (Damascus), Halab, Hamah, Hims (Homs), Idlib, Rif Dimashq (Damascus Countryside), TartusIndependence:17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)National holiday:Independence Day, 17 April (1946)Constitution:13 March 1973; amended February 2012Legal system:mixed legal system of civil and Islamic law (for family courts)International law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 July 2000); Vice President Farouk al-SHARA (since 21 February 2006); Vice President Najah al-ATTAR (since 23 March 2006)head of government: Prime Minister Wael al-HALQI (since 9 August 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers Fahd Jasim al-FURAYJ, Lt. Gen., Walid al-MUALEMcabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - new Council appointed on 14 April 2011(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president approved by popular referendum for a second seven-year term (no term limits); referendum last held on 27 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2014); the president appoints the vice presidents, prime minister, and deputy prime ministerselection results: Bashar al-ASAD approved as president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD 97.6%, other 2.4%Legislative branch:unicameral People's Assembly or Majlis al-Shaab (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)elections: last held on 7 May 2012 (next to be held in 2016)election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NAJudicial branch:highest court(s): Court of Cassation (organized into civil, criminal, religious, and military divisions, each with 3 judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 4 members)judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by the Supreme Judicial Council or SJC, a judicial management body headed by the minister of justice with 7 members including the national president; judge tenure NA; Supreme Constitutional Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the SJC; judges appointed for 4-year renewable termssubordinate courts: courts of first instance; magistrates' courts; religious and military courts; Economic Security CourtPolitical parties and leaders:legal parties:National Progressive Front or NPF [President Bashar al-ASAD, Dr. Suleiman QADDAH] (includes Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party [President Bashar al-ASAD]Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Fadlallah Nasr al-DIN]Syrian Arab Socialist Union or ASU [Safwan al-QUDSI]Syrian Communist Party (two branches) [Wissal Farha BAKDASH, Yusuf Rashid FAYSAL]Syrian Social Nationalist Party [As'ad HARDAN]Unionist Socialist Party [Fayez ISMAIL])Kurdish parties (considered illegal):Kurdish Azadi PartyKurdish Democratic Accord Party (al Wifaq)Kurdish Democratic Party (al Parti-Ibrahim wing)Kurdish Democratic Party (al Parti-Mustafa wing)Kurdish Democratic Party in Syria or KDP-SKurdish Democratic Patriotic/National PartyKurdish Democratic Progressive Party or KDPP-DarwishKurdish Democratic Progressive Party or KDPP-MuhammadKurdish Democratic Union Party or PYD [Salih Muslim MOHAMMAD]Kurdish Democratic Unity PartyKurdish Democratic Yekiti PartyKurdish Future Party or KFPKurdish Future Party [Rezan HASSAN]Kurdish Left PartyKurdish Yekiti (Union) PartySyrian Kurdish Democratic Partyother parties: Syrian Democratic Party [Mustafa QALAAJI]Political pressure groups and leaders:Free Syrian ArmyNational Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Oppositon Forces or Syrian Oppositon Coalition [Mu'aaz al-KHATIB] (operates in exile in Cairo)Syrian Muslim Brotherhood or SMB [Muhammad Riyad al-SHAQFAH] (operates in exile in London)note: there are also hundreds of local groups that organize protests and stage armed attacksInternational organization participation:ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mounir KOUDMANIchancery: 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 232-6313FAX:  (202) 265-4585Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Robert S. FORD; note - on 6 February 2012, the US closed its embassy in Damascusembassy: Abou Roumaneh, Al-Mansour Street, No. 2, Damascusmailing address: P. O. Box 29, Damascustelephone:  (11) 3391-4444FAX:  (11) 3391-3999Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; two small, green, five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); identical to the former flag of the United Arab Republic (1958-1961) where the two stars represented the constituent states of Syria and Egypt; the current design dates to 1980note: similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and that of Egypt, which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered in the white bandNational symbol(s):hawkNational anthem:name: ""Humat ad-Diyar"" (Guardians of the Homeland)lyrics/music: Khalil Mardam BEY/Mohammad Salim FLAYFEL and Ahmad Salim FLAYFELnote: adopted 1936, restored 1961; between 1958 and 1961, while Syria was a member of the United Arab Republic with Egypt, the country had a different anthemEconomy ::SyriaEconomy - overview:Despite modest economic growth and reform prior to the outbreak of unrest, Syria's economy continues to suffer the effects of the ongoing conflict that began in 2011. The economy further contracted in 2012 because of international sanctions and reduced domestic consumption and production, and inflation has risen sharply. The government has struggled to address the effects of economic decline, which include dwindling foreign exchange reserves, rising budget and trade deficits, and the decreasing value of the Syrian pound. Prior to the unrest, Damascus began liberalizing economic policies, including cutting lending interest rates, opening private banks, consolidating multiple exchange rates, raising prices on some subsidized items, and establishing the Damascus Stock Exchange. The economy remains highly regulated by the government. Long-run economic constraints include foreign trade barriers, declining oil production, high unemployment, rising budget deficits, and increasing pressure on water supplies caused by heavy use in agriculture, rapid population growth, industrial expansion, and water pollution.GDP (purchasing power parity):$107.6 billion (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 69$110.1 billion (2010 est.)$113.9 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2011 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$64.7 billion (2011 est.)GDP - real growth rate:NA% (2012 est.)-2.3% (2011 est.)3.4% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$5,100 (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 159$5,100 (2010 est.)$5,300 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2011 US dollarsGross national saving:12.5% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 11615% of GDP (2011 est.)26.1% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 69.4%government consumption: 17.2%investment in fixed capital: 20.5%investment in inventories: 8.4%exports of goods and services: 13.9%imports of goods and services: -29.4%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 16.5%industry: 22.8%services: 60.7% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets; beef, mutton, eggs, poultry, milkIndustries:petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining, cement, oil seeds crushing, car assemblyIndustrial production growth rate:-36% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 172Labor force:5.327 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 72Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 17%industry: 16%services: 67% (2008 est.)Unemployment rate:18% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 15614.9% (2011 est.)Population below poverty line:11.9% (2006 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%highest 10%: NA%Budget:revenues: $5.222 billionexpenditures: $12.59 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:8.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 211Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-11.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 207Public debt:52.2% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 5935.2% of GDP (2011 est.)Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):37% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 2224.8% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:0.75% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 695% (31 December 2011 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:11.7% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 8410.5% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$18.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 65$22.37 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$30.17 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 76$39.36 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$18.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 87$27.8 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:-$5.103 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 166-$7.726 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$3.876 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 123$10.29 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:crude oil, minerals, petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton fiber, textiles, clothing, meat and live animals, wheatExports - partners:Iraq 55.9%, Saudi Arabia 9.3%, Kuwait 6.1%, UAE 5.3%, Lebanon 4.2% (2012)Imports:$10.78 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 94$17.6 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and transport equipment, electric power machinery, food and livestock, metal and metal products, chemicals and chemical products, plastics, yarn, paperImports - partners:Saudi Arabia 21.2%, UAE 10.4%, Iran 7.7%, China 7%, Iraq 6.3%, Ukraine 6.3%, Egypt 4.3% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$4.774 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 94$14.83 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$8.33 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 103$8.196 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:Syrian pounds (SYP) per US dollar -64.3919 (2012 est.)48.371 (2011 est.)11.225 (2010 est.)46.708 (2009)46.5281 (2008)Energy ::SyriaElectricity - production:40.86 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 57Electricity - consumption:28.87 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 62Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 133Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 136Electricity - installed generating capacity:8.2 million kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 61Electricity - from fossil fuels:84.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 87Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 180Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:15.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 102Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 188Crude oil - production:333,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 33Crude oil - exports:144,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 35Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 124Crude oil - proved reserves:2.183 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 34Refined petroleum products - production:255,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 49Refined petroleum products - consumption:258,800 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 49Refined petroleum products - exports:14,540 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 82Refined petroleum products - imports:58,160 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 64Natural gas - production:8.94 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 45Natural gas - consumption:9.63 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 48Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 184Natural gas - imports:690 million cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 65Natural gas - proved reserves:240.7 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 44Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:63.1 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 52Communications ::SyriaTelephones - main lines in use:4.345 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 37Telephones - mobile cellular:13.117 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 59Telephone system:general assessment: fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology and expansion of the network to rural areas; the armed insurgency that began in 2011 has led to major disruptions to the network and has caused telephone and Internet outages throughout the countrydomestic: the number of fixed-line connections has increased markedly since 2000; mobile-cellular service growing with telephone subscribership nearly 60 per 100 persons in 2011international: country code - 963; submarine cable connection to Egypt, Lebanon, and Cyprus; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; participant in Medarabtel (2011)Broadcast media:state-run TV and radio broadcast networks; state operates 2 TV networks and a satellite channel; roughly two-thirds of Syrian homes have a satellite dish providing access to foreign TV broadcasts; 3 state-run radio channels; first private radio station launched in 2005; private radio broadcasters prohibited from transmitting news or political content (2007)Internet country code:.syInternet hosts:416 (2012)country comparison to the world: 187Internet users:4.469 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 52Transportation ::SyriaAirports:90 (2013)country comparison to the world: 62Airports - with paved runways:total: 29over 3,047 m: 52,438 to 3,047 m: 16914 to 1,523 m: 3under 914 m: 5 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 611,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 12under 914 m:48 (2013)Heliports:6 (2013)Pipelines:gas 3,170 km; oil 2,029 km (2013)Railways:total: 2,052 kmcountry comparison to the world: 72standard gauge: 1,801 km 1.435-m gaugenarrow gauge: 251 km 1.050-m gauge (2008)Roadways:total: 68,157 kmcountry comparison to the world: 69paved: 61,514 km (includes 1,103 km of expressways)unpaved: 6,643 km (2006)Waterways:900 km (navigable but not economically significant) (2011)country comparison to the world: 69Merchant marine:total: 19country comparison to the world: 95by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 14, carrier 1registered in other countries: 166 (Barbados 1, Belize 4, Bolivia 4, Cambodia 22, Comoros 5, Dominica 4, Georgia 24, Lebanon 2, Liberia 1, Malta 4, Moldova 5, North Korea 4, Panama 34, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, Sierra Leone 13, Tanzania 23, Togo 6, unknown 1) (2010)Ports and terminals:Baniyas, Latakia, TartusMilitary ::SyriaMilitary branches:Syrian Armed Forces: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air and Air Defense Forces (includes Air Defense Command) (2008)Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation is 18 months; women are not conscripted but may volunteer to serve; re-enlistment obligation 5 years, with retirement after 15 years or age 40 (enlisted) or 20 years or age 45 (NCOs) (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 5,889,837females age 16-49: 5,660,751 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 5,055,510females age 16-49: 4,884,151 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 256,698female: 244,712 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:3.6% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 31Transnational Issues ::SyriaDisputes - international:Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied with the almost 1,000-strong UN Disengagement Observer Force patrolling a buffer zone since 1964; lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms in the Golan Heights; 2004 Agreement and pending demarcation settles border dispute with JordanRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 486,946 (Palestinian Refugees (UNRWA)); 87,741 (Iraq) (2012)IDPs: 4.25 million (ongoing civil war since 2011) (2012)stateless persons: 221,000 (2012); note - Syria's stateless population is composed of Kurds and Palestinians; stateless persons are prevented from voting, owning land, holding certain jobs, receiving food subsidies or public healthcare, enrolling in public schools, or being legally married to Syrian citizens; in 1962, some 120,000 Syrian Kurds were stripped of their Syrian citizenship, rendering them and their descendants stateless; in 2011, the Syrian government granted citizenship to thousands of Syrian Kurds as a means of appeasement; however, resolving the question of statelessness is not a priority given Syria's ongoing civil warTrafficking in persons:current situation: due to Syria's political uprising and violent unrest, hundreds of thousands of Syrians, foreign migrant workers, and refugees have fled the country and are vulnerable to human trafficking; the lack of security and inaccessibility of the majority of the country makes it impossible to conduct a thorough analysis of the ongoing conflict and the scope and magnitude of Syria's human trafficking situation; prior to the uprising, Syria was principally a destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor or sex trafficking; thousands of women - the majority from Indonesia, the Philippines, Somalia, and Ethiopia - were recruited to work as domestic servants but were subsequently subjected to forced labor; Filipina domestic workers continue to be sent to Syria and are vulnerable to forced labor; the Syrian armed forces and opposition forces are using Syrian children in combat and support roles and as human shields; Iraqi women and girls continue to be sexually exploited, and Syrian children still face conditions of forced labortier rating: Tier 3 - the government does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government does not demonstrate evidence of increasing efforts to investigate and punish trafficking offenses, provide protective services to victims, inform the public about human trafficking, or provide much-needed anti-trafficking training to law enforcement and social welfare officials; the government does not refer any victims to NGO-operated shelters and has failed to institute procedures for the identification, interview, and referral of trafficking victims; the status of the national plan of action against trafficking is unknown (2013)Illicit drugs:a transit point for opiates, hashish, and cocaine bound for regional and Western markets; weak anti-money-laundering controls and bank privatization may leave it vulnerable to money laundering"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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Syria — puede referirse a: ● La República Árabe Siria, por una de las transliteraciones del nombre. ● La cantante italiana Syria, conocida por la canción “Non ci sto” … Enciclopedia Universal
Syria — – Archéologie, art et histoire, anciennement Revue d’art oriental et d’archéologie, est une revue pluridisciplinaire et plurilingue consacrée au Proche Orient sémitique, publiée par l’Institut français du Proche Orient. La revue a paru depuis… … Wikipédia en Français
Syria — [sir′ē ə] 1. region of ancient times at the E end of the Mediterranean 2. country in the NW part of this region, south of Turkey: formerly a French mandate, it became an independent republic (1944 58); united with Egypt to form the UNITED ARAB… … English World dictionary
Syria — This article is about the modern state of Syria. For other uses, see Syria (disambiguation). Syrian Arab Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية Al Jumhūriyyah al ʿArabiyyah as Sūriyyah … Wikipedia